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- MPI topic: Data types
- Sum of an array using MPI
- Java* Bindings for MPI-2 Routines
MPI Send and Receive
MPI topic: Data types
Sending and receiving are the two foundational concepts of MPI. Almost every single function in MPI can be implemented with basic send and receive calls. Note - All of the code for this site is on GitHub. First, process A decides a message needs to be sent to process B. Process A then packs up all of its necessary data into a buffer for process B. These buffers are often referred to as envelopes since the data is being packed into a single message before transmission similar to how letters are packed into envelopes before transmission to the post office. After the data is packed into a buffer, the communication device which is often a network is responsible for routing the message to the proper location. Once it does this, the data has been transmitted. Process A is acknowledged that the data has been transmitted and may go back to work. Sometimes there are cases when A might have to send many different types of messages to B. Instead of B having to go through extra measures to differentiate all these messages, MPI allows senders and receivers to also specify message IDs with the message known as tags. When process B only requests a message with a certain tag number, messages with different tags will be buffered by the network until B is ready for them. Although this might seem like a mouthful when reading all of the arguments, they become easier to remember since almost every MPI call uses similar syntax. The first argument is the data buffer. The second and third arguments describe the count and type of elements that reside in the buffer. The other elementary MPI datatypes are listed below with their equivalent C datatypes. For now, we will only make use of these datatypes in the following MPI tutorials in the beginner category. Once we have covered enough basics, you will learn how to create your own MPI datatypes for characterizing more complex types of messages. Some of the major parts of the program are shown below. Then process zero initializes a number to the value of negative one and sends this value to process one. It also prints off the received value. Each process also uses a tag number of zero to identify the message. You can run the example code by checking it out on GitHub and using the run. The next example is a ping pong program. The major portions of the code look like this. This example is meant to be executed with only two processes. The processes first determine their partner with some simple arithmetic. Finally, after the limit is reached ten in my codethe processes stop sending and receiving. The output of the example code will look something like this. The output of the programs on other machines will likely be different because of process scheduling. However, as you can see, process zero and one are both taking turns sending and receiving the ping pong counter to each other. In this example, a value is passed around by all processes in a ring-like fashion. Take a look at ring. The major portion of the code looks like this. The ring program initializes a value from process zero, and the value is passed around every single process. The program terminates when process zero receives the value from the last process. In other words, process zero makes sure that it has completed its first send before it tries to receive the value from the last process. Because of this, the printfs should occur by the order in which the value is passed. Using five processes, the output should look like this. As we can see, process zero first sends a value of negative one to process one.
Sum of an array using MPI
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The back of your camera is never very accurate. I suggest using Adobe Lightroom to organize all your images, and it can be used to do almost all of your editing except very advanced processes. If you photographed your product correctly, the product should be exposed properly and your background a light grey. It should look something like the un-retouched image above, and comparing it to retouched version shows you how important this step of the process actually is.
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The not so technical industry term is down-rezing referring to lowering the resolution. To find your image size, right click on the image on your website to inspect the image. Chances are your images will need to be cropped to fit the exact dimensions required by your website, but thankfully this is something you can manage easily in Lightroom, but entering a custom crop size.
Lightroom is by far the best way to organize, edit, and process your images. The important part is how you set the file settings and image sizing:Everything else is up to you, or self-explanatory. There you have it. If you try this, please post an image of your setup and a final image so everyone can see what you did.
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Java* Bindings for MPI-2 Routines
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